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What's New in WCAG 2.1 & 2.2

WCAG 2.1 (A & AA)

Name

Description

1.3.4

Orientation

Content does not restrict its view and operation to a single display orientation, such as portrait or landscape, unless a specific display orientation is essential.

1.3.5

Identify Input Purpose

The purpose of each input field collecting information about the user can be programmatically determined when:

  • The input field serves a purpose identified in the Input Purposes for user interface components section; and
  • The content is implemented using technologies with support for identifying the expected meaning for form input data.

1.4.10

Reflow

Content can be presented without loss of information or functionality, and without requiring scrolling in two dimensions for:

  • Vertical scrolling content at a width equivalent to 320 CSS pixels;
  • Horizontal scrolling content at a height equivalent to 256 CSS pixels.

Except for parts of the content which require two-dimensional layout for usage or meaning.

1.4.11

Non-text Contrast

The visual presentation of the following have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1 against adjacent color(s):

  • User Interface Components: Visual information required to identify user interface components and states, except for inactive components or where the appearance of the component is determined by the user agent and not modified by the author;
  • Graphical Objects: Parts of graphics required to understand the content, except when a particular presentation of graphics is essential to the information being conveyed.

1.4.12

Text Spacing

In content implemented using markup languages that support the following text style properties, no loss of content or functionality occurs by setting all of the following and by changing no other style property:

  • Line height (line spacing) to at least 1.5 times the font size;
  • Spacing following paragraphs to at least 2 times the font size;
  • Letter spacing (tracking) to at least 0.12 times the font size;
  • Word spacing to at least 0.16 times the font size.

Exception: Human languages and scripts that do not make use of one or more of these text style properties in written text can conform using only the properties that exist for that combination of language and script.

1.4.13

Content on Hover or Focus

Where receiving and then removing pointer hover or keyboard focus triggers additional content to become visible and then hidden, the following are true:

  • Dismissible: A mechanism is available to dismiss the additional content without moving pointer hover or keyboard focus, unless the additional content communicates an input error or does not obscure or replace other content;
  • Hoverable: If pointer hover can trigger the additional content, then the pointer can be moved over the additional content without the additional content disappearing;
  • Persistent: The additional content remains visible until the hover or focus trigger is removed, the user dismisses it, or its information is no longer valid.

2.1.4

Character Key Shortcuts

If a keyboard shortcut is implemented in content using only letter (including upper- and lower-case letters), punctuation, number, or symbol characters, then at least one of the following is true:

  • Turn off: A mechanism is available to turn the shortcut off;
  • Remap: A mechanism is available to remap the shortcut to include one or more non-printable keyboard keys (e.g., Ctrl, Alt);
  • Active only on focus: The keyboard shortcut for a user interface component is only active when that component has focus.

2.5.1

Pointer Gestures

All functionality that uses multipoint or path-based gestures for operation can be operated with a single pointer without a path-based gesture, unless a multipoint or path-based gesture is essential.

2.5.2

Pointer Cancellation

For functionality that can be operated using a single pointer, at least one of the following is true:

  • No Down-Event: The down-event of the pointer is not used to execute any part of the function;
  • Abort or Undo: Completion of the function is on the up-event, and a mechanism is available to abort the function before completion or to undo the function after completion;
  • Up Reversal: The up-event reverses any outcome of the preceding down-event;
  • Essential: Completing the function on the down-event is essential.

2.5.3

Label in Name

For user interface components with labels that include text or images of text, the name contains the text that is presented visually.

NOTE: A best practice is to have the text of the label at the start of the name.

2.5.4

Motion Actuation

Functionality that can be operated by device motion or user motion can also be operated by user interface components and responding to the motion can be disabled to prevent accidental actuation, except when:

  • Supported Interface: The motion is used to operate functionality through an accessibility supported interface;
  • Essential: The motion is essential for the function and doing so would invalidate the activity.

4.1.3

Status Messages

For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies.

WCAG 2.2 (A & AA)

#

Name

Description

2.4.11

Focus Not Obscured

When a user interface component receives keyboard focus, no part of the component is hidden by author-created content.

2.5.7

Dragging Movements

All functionality that uses a dragging movement for operation can be achieved by a single pointer without dragging, unless dragging is essential or the functionality is determined by the user agent and not modified by the author.

2.5.8

Target Size

The size of the target for pointer inputs is at least 24 by 24 CSS pixels, except where:

  • Spacing: Undersized targets (those less than 24 by 24 CSS pixels) are positioned so that if a 24 CSS pixel diameter circle is centered on the bounding box of each, the circles do not intersect another target or the circle for another undersized target;
  • Equivalent: The function can be achieved through a different control on the same page that meets this criterion;
  • Inline: The target is in a sentence or its size is otherwise constrained by the line-height of non-target text;
  • User agent control: The size of the target is determined by the user agent and is not modified by the author;
  • Essential: A particular presentation of the target is essential or is legally required for the information being conveyed.

3.2.6

Consistent Help

If a Web page contains any of the following help mechanisms, and those mechanisms are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages, they occur in the same order relative to other page content, unless a change is initiated by the user:

  • Human contact details;
  • Human contact mechanism;
  • Self-help option;
  • A fully automated contact mechanism.

3.3.7

Redundant Entry

Information previously entered by or provided to the user that is required to be entered again in the same process is either:

  • auto-populated, or
  • available for the user to select.

Except when:

  • re-entering the information is essential,
  • the information is required to ensure the security of the content, or
  • previously entered information is no longer valid.

3.3.8

Accessible Authentication

A cognitive function test (such as remembering a password or solving a puzzle) is not required for any step in an authentication process unless that step provides at least one of the following:

  • Alternative: Another authentication method that does not rely on a cognitive function test.
  • Mechanism: A mechanism is available to assist the user in completing the cognitive function test.
  • Object Recognition: The cognitive function test is to recognize objects.
  • Personal Content: The cognitive function test is to identify non-text content the user provided to the Web site.

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